Invited speaker: Wilhelm Zwerger
Affiliation: TU München
Title: Have Ultracold Atoms Led to Progress in Theoretical Physics?
Time and room: 10:15, lecture hall HISKP
Abstract: Ultracold atoms have opened new directions in physics, both by realizing paradigmatic models in many-body and statistical physics and by allowing to explore phenomena which have never been accessible before. In this talk, I will discuss to which extent ultracold atoms have also triggered new developments in theoretical physics.
It is shown that for the quantum many-body problem with zero range interactions which appears naturally in the context of ultracold atoms, there are a number of exact relations which connect the short distance behavior of the one- and two-body density matrix with thermodynamic properties and also the high-frequency or large momentum behavior of correlation functions. These relations follow from a Wilson operator product expansion and thus apply to arbitrary states of the many-body system. Two examples for their concrete application are given: the violation of scale invariance in RF-spectroscopy of two-dimensional Fermi gases and deep inelastic scattering on strongly interacting Bose gases at large momentum.
Invited speaker: Franz J. Gießibl
Affiliation: Universität Regensburg
Title: Progress in Studying Matter on the Atomic Scale
Time and room: 17:15, lecture hall IAP
Abstract: The scanning tunneling microscope (STM), invented in 1981 by Binnig and Rohrer, has provided direct access to the world of atoms. STM relies on vacuum tunneling with an exponential increase of a tunneling current between two biased conductive electrodes at a factor of ten per Å. If a tip has one atom that sticks out one Å more than all the others, this front atom carries ten times more current than the other atoms. The monotonic decrease of current with distance facilitates distance feedback and allows to scan the tip across a sample with atomic precision. In 1986, Binnig, Gerber and Quate introduced atomic force microscopy (AFM), a method that also images insulators by relying on forces. Unlike the current, the force between tip and sample is non-monotonic and includes long- and short range components. AFM has been inferior in resolution to STM for a long time. Today, it exceeds STM in spatial resolution. That progress was enabled by advances in measuring small forces and by the isolation of chemical bonding forces from strong background forces.
Figure: AFM image of an Fe_{3} and Fe_{2} cluster on a Cu(111) surface.
Invited speaker: Nicolas Sangouard
Affiliation: University of Basel
Title: Towards entanglement at macroscopic scales
Time and room: 9 h c.t., Conference room 1, Physikalisches Institut
Invited speaker: Christof Weitenberg
Affiliation: Universität Hamburg
Title: Observation of a dynamical phase transition in the non-equilibrium dynamics of ultracold quantum gases in driven optical lattices
Time and room: 17:15, lecture hall IAP
Abstract: Ultracold atoms are a versatile system to emulate solid-state physics including the fascinating phenomena of gauge fields and topological band structures. By circular driving of a hexagonal optical lattice, we engineer the Berry curvature of the Bloch bands and realize a Haldane-like model. We have developed a fully momentum-resolved state tomography of the Bloch states, which allows measuring the distribution of Berry curvature and obtaining the Chern number [1].
Furthermore, we study the time-evolution of the many-body wavefunction after a sudden quench of the lattice parameters and observe the appearance, movement, and annihilation of dynamical vortices in reciprocal space. We identify them as the Fisher zeros in the Loschmidt amplitude and define them as a dynamical equivalent of an order parameter, which suddenly changes its value at critical evolution times [2]. Our measurements constitute the first observation of a so-called dynamical phase transition and address the intriguing question of the relation between this phenomenon and the equilibrium phase transition in the system.
[1] Flaeschner et al., Science 352, 1091 (2016). [2] Flaeschner et al., arXiv:1608.05616 (2016)
Invited speaker: Enrique Solano
Affiliation: University of the Basque Country, Bilbao
Title: Digital and Analog Quantum Simulations in Superconducting Circuits
Time and room: 17:15, lecture hall IAP
Abstract: I will introduce the concept of quantum simulation as a means of reproducing physical and unphysical models onto another quantum system, which is tpyically more controllable. I will explain the role played by analog and digital quantum simulators in different quantum platforms, while providing specific examples in superconducting circuits. Furthermore, I will discuss the possible merge of digital and analog concepts to reach quantum supremacy in this promising quantum technology.