Invited speaker: Jürgen Eschner
Affiliation: Universität Saarbrücken
Title: Single-Photon-Single-Atom Quantum Interfaces
Time and room: 17:15, lecture hall IAP
Abstract: We are developing a comprehensive set of experimental tools, based on ion-trapping and photonic technologies, that enable controlled generation, storage, transmission, and conversion of single photonic quantum bits, thereby integrating single photons and single atoms into a quantum network. Specifically, we implemented a programmable atom-photon interface, employing the controlled quantum interaction between a single trapped 40Ca+ ion and single photons [1,2]. Depending on its mode of operation, the interface serves as a bi-directional atom-photon quantum state converter (receiver and sender), as a source of entangled atom-photon states (entangler), or as a quantum frequency converter of single photons [3,4] (converter). It lends itself particularly to integrating ions with single photons or entangled photon pairs from spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) sources [5,6]. As an experimental application of the receiver mode, we demonstrate the transfer of entanglement from an SPDC photon pair to atom-photon pairs with high fidelity [7]. It is realized by heralded absorption and storage of a single photonic qubit in a single ion. We extend our quantum network toolbox into the telecom regime by quantum frequency conversion of ion-resonant single photons [9], and by implementing telecom-heralded single-photon absorption [5]. In addition, we observe signatures of entanglement between the ion and a single telecom photon. This is obtained after controlled emission of a single photon at 854 nm and its polarization-preserving frequency conversion into the telecom band, by difference-frequency generation in a nonlinear waveguide.
^{1. M. Schug et al., Phys. Rev. A 90, 023829 (2014).
2. P. Müller, J. Eschner, Appl. Phys. B 114, 303 (2014).
3. C. Kurz et al.,Nat. Commun. 5, 5527 (2014);
4. C. Kurz et al.,Phys. Rev. A 93, 062348 (2016).
5. A. Lenhard et al., Phys. Rev. A 92, 063827 (2015).
6. J. Brito et al., Appl. Phys. B. (2016), 122:36.
7. S. Kucera et al., in preparation.
8. N. Sangouard et al., New J. Phys. 15, 085004 (2013).
9. A. Lenhard et al.,Opt. Express 25, 11187 (2017).}
Invited speaker: Sandro Wimberger
Affiliation: Università di Parma
Title: Discrete-time walks of a Bose-Einstein condensate in momentum space
Time and room: 09:15, Seminar room I, HISKP 1.021
Abstract: Each step in a discrete-time quantum walk is typically understood to have two basic components: a „coin-toss“ which produces a random superposition of two states, and a displacement which moves each component of the superposition by different amounts. Here we report on the experimental realization of a walk in momentum space with a spinor Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) subject to a quantum ratchet realized with a pulsed, off-resonant optical lattice. By an appropriate choice of the lattice detuning, we show how the atomic momentum can be entangled with the internal spin states of the atoms. For the coin-toss, we propose to use a microwave pulse to mix these internal states. We present first experimental results of such a quantum walk based on a new type of ratchet, and through a series of simulations, demonstrate how our system can allow for the investigation of possible biases and classical-to-quantum dynamics in the presence of natural and engineered noise. Moreover, the same setup offers the possibility to realize classical random walks by applying a random sequence of intensities and phases of the time-dependent lattice chosen according to a given probability distribution. This distribution converts on average into the final momentum distribution of the atoms. In particular, it is shown that a power-law distribution for the intensities results in a classical Lévy walk in momentum space. Finally, we propose another implementation of a BEC quantum walk in reciprocal or quasimomentum space with exciting possibilities to investigate the effects of long-range quantum correlations induced by atom-atom interactions.
Invited speaker: Günter Huber
Affiliation: Universität Hamburg
Title: Semiconductor Laser Pumped Rare Earth Ion Doped Solid-state Lasers
in the Visible and Near Infrared Spectral Region
Time and room: 17:15, lecture hall IAP
Abstract: The talk reviews the basic concepts of advanced highly efficient rare earth ion doped
solid-state lasers based on laser ions such as Yb3+, Tm3+, Er3+, Pr3+, and Tb3+ which
have opened new prospects for laser applications at various wavelengths and power
regimes. The main emphasis is placed on the interplay between materials aspects and
most relevant spectroscopic as well as laser related properties in the search for new
solid-state laser systems.
For the near infrared spectral region Yb3+-doped laser crystals feature very high
efficiencies and reduced heat generation due to small Stokes-losses between pump and
laser photons. In particular, Yb3+:Lu2O3 possesses high thermal conductivity and have
been operated at record slope efficiencies of 80% in continuous wave operation and at
more than 100 W of average power in the mode-locked sub-ps operation regime. Laser
diode pumped, highly efficient 2-μm Tm3+- and 3-μm Er3+-lasers with special interest
for medical applications are based on interionic interactions of Tm3+ and Er3+ laser ions,
respectively.
Breakthroughs regarding efficient visible coherent light generation have been achieved
with Pr3+- and Tb3+-lasers operating in the green, orange, and red spectral region under
blue semiconductor laser pumping. Here both, the development of blue semiconductor
pump lasers and the use of suitable short wavelength hosts with minimized excited state
absorption of the laser ions contributed to major achievements.
The functionality of laser crystals can be further increased by direct micro-structuring of
bulk crystals with ultrafast laser pulses yielding for instance efficient waveguide lasers
with diffraction limited, fundamental modes in the near infrared and visible spectral
region. This simple direct light writing technique is also suitable for the fabrication of
more complex structures for integrated optics in single crystalline dielectrics.
Invited speaker: Klas Lindfors
Affiliation: Universität zu Köln
Title: Plasmonic Nanoantennas For Wireless Signal Transmission
Time and room: 17:15, lecture hall IAP
Abstract: Optical nanoantennas and nanoantenna arrays are highly innovative approaches for optical signal transmission. Transmitting the signal via a free-space link (power law signal decay) instead of plasmonic waveguides (exponential signal decay) allows realizing low-loss optical communications links without sacrificing deep sub-wavelength field confinement at the transmitting and receiving points. This is a promising route for reconciling the size mismatch between diffraction-limited integrated photonics and integrated electronics. In my talk I will present results from our work on realizing plasmonic nanoantenna devices to control the transmission of light [1,2] and on integrating single quantum emitters into nanoantennas [3,4].
[1] D. Dregely et al., Nat. Commun. 5, 4354 (2014).
[2] K. Lindfors et al., ACS Photonics 3, 286 (2016).
[3] M. Pfeiffer et al., Nano Lett. 14, 197 (2014).
[4] H. Zhang et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 101110 (2015).
Invited speaker: Christoph Stampfer
Affiliation: RWTH Aachen and Forschungszentrum Jülich
Title: Quantum Point Contacts in Graphene
Time and room: 17:15, lecture hall IAP
Abstract: Quantum point contacts are cornerstones of mesoscopic physics and central building blocks for quantum electronics. Although the Fermi wavelength in high-quality bulk graphene can be tuned up to hundreds of nanometers, the observation of quantum confinement of Dirac electrons in nanostructured graphene systems has proven surprisingly challenging. Here I show ballistic transport and quantized conductance of size-confined Dirac fermions in lithographically-defined graphene constrictions. The fabricated graphene constrictions are encapsulated in hexagonal boron nitride sheets allowing for high carrier mobilities. The constrictions have widths ranging from around 200 to 800 nm. At high charge carrier densities, the observed conductance agrees excellently with the Landauer theory of ballistic transport without any adjustable parameter. Experimental data and simulations for the evolution of the conductance with magnetic field unambiguously confirm the identification of size quantization in the constriction. Close to the charge neutrality point, bias voltage spectroscopy reveals a renormalized Fermi velocity of ~1.5x106 m/s in our graphene constrictions. Moreover, at low carrier density transport measurements allow probing the density of localized states at edges, thus offering a unique handle on edge physics in graphene devices.