Invited speaker: Prof. Gerd Röpke
Affiliation: Universität Rostock
Title: Radiation and Line Spectra from Dense Plasmas
Time and room: 17:15, lecture hall IAP
Abstract: Emission and absorption of electromagnetic radiation is a fundamental process in plasma physics. It is of relevance, e.g., for heating and cooling, diagnostics of plasmas and the generation of light. Besides continuum radiation (bremsstrahlung), the line spectrum is of
interest. The shape of spectral lines is determined by microscopic processes in the plasma.
A quantum statistical approach to the optical properties of dense plasmas is presented that allows a systematic treatment of many-particle effects. In particular, profiles of spectral lines are obtained. Various examples are given: Hydrogen-like radiators, few-electron radiators, inner-shell transitions, in particular K_alpha radiation.
Radiation from a strongly correlated system is not emitted by a single ion but by the whole plasma. A fundamental theory of radiation has to be formulated starting from many-body quantum electrodynamics.
Invited speaker: Prof. Carsten Rockstuhl
Affiliation: Universität Jena
Title: Amorphous Nanophotonics
Time and room: 17:15, lecture hall IAP
Abstract: Most nanooptical systems are fabricated with deterministic top-down technologies. This leads in many cases to periodically arranged nanostructures which have a limited spatial extension along the third dimension. The perfect control over all geometrical features with such techniques is often an asset; but it can be also detrimental since, e.g., it is difficult to reach bulk optical nanomaterials, and the periodic arrangement often causes undesired effects, e.g., strong spatial dispersion in metamaterials denies the unambiguous introduction of effective material parameters. Such limitations are about to be lifted by relying on bottom-up nanofabrication technologies. There, self-organization methods and techniques from the field of colloidal nanochemistry are used to build complex functional elements from an ensemble of simple building blocks, i.e. in most cases metallic nanospheres.
This talk gives an introduction to the topic of amorphous nanophotonics from the point of view of somebody that discusses such systems on theoretical grounds. Emphasis is put on a description of challenges and an outline of promises associated to amorphous nanophotonics; but limitations that have been encountered are equally critically assessed.
Selected references:
[1] S. Mühlig, A. Cunningham, S. Scheeler, C. Pacholski, T. Burgi, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Self-Assembled Plasmonic Core-Shell Clusters with an Isotropic Magnetic Dipole Response in the Visible” ACS Nano Vol. 5 6586, (2011)
[2] A. Cunningham, S. Mühlig, C. Rockstuhl, and T. Bürgi, “Coupling of plasmon resonances in tunable layered arrays of gold nanoparticles” Journal of Physical Chemistry C Vol. 115 8955, (2011)
[3] C. Rockstuhl, C. Menzel, S. Mühlig, J. Petschulat, C. Helgert, C. Etrich, A. Chipouline, T. Pertsch, and F. Lederer, “Scattering properties of metaatoms” Physical Review B Vol. 83 245119, (2011)
Invited speaker: Prof. Philipp Treutlein
Affiliation: Universität Basel
Title: Quantum Metrology With Ultracold Atoms On A Chip
Time and room: 17:15, lecture hall IAP
Abstract: Atom chips provide a versatile quantum laboratory for experiments with ultracold atomic gases. Electromagnetic fields from microstructured wires and electrodes are used to cool, trap, and coherently manipulate the quantum state of the atoms. This enables chip-based atomic clocks and interferometers, which combine high precision with a compact and robust setup. In such an interferometer, we generate spin-squeezed states of the atoms through the "one-axis twisting model" first described by Kitagawa and Ueda in 1993. These multi-particle entangled states are a useful resource for quantum metrology, as they allow one to overcome the standard quantum limit of interferometric measurement.
High-resolution imaging of electromagnetic fields is a metrology task for which atom chips are particularly well-suited. We have used ultracold atoms for microwave field imaging near on-chip waveguides. This novel technique is of interest for testing and optimizing integrated microwave circuits, which are at the heart of modern communication technology.
M. F. Riedel, P. Böhi, Yun Li, T. W. Hänsch, A. Sinatra, and P. Treutlein, Nature 464, 1170 (2010).
R. Schmied and P. Treutlein, New J. Phys. 13, 065019 (2011).
P. Böhi, M. F. Riedel, T. W. Hänsch, and P. Treutlein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 051101 (2010).
Invited speaker: Prof. Serge Haroche
Affiliation: Collège de France und Ecole Normale Supérieure, Paris
Title: Real Time Quantum Feedback Control Of Non-Classical Field States In A Cavity
Time and room: 13:15, lecture hall IAP
Abstract: In our Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics experiments, we use a beam of Rydberg atoms to manipulate and probe non-destructively microwave photons trapped in a very high Q superconducting cavity. In recent years, we have realized ideal quantum non-demolition (QND) measurements of photon numbers, observed the radiation quantum jumps due to cavity relaxation and prepared non-classical fields such as Fock and Schrödinger cat states. Combining QND photon counting with a homodyne mixing method, we have reconstructed the Wigner functions of these non-classical states and, by taking snapshots of these functions at increasing times, obtained movies of the decoherence process.
The next step in this research program was to demonstrate ways to protect these non-classical states against decoherence. One natural method is to implement a procedure analogous to the feedback strategies used to stabilize complex systems in classical physics. A probe measures the system state, a controller determines the action leading it towards the chosen operating point and an actuator realizes this action. Juggling, for instance, relies on feedback loops from the eye to the hands through the brain. Transferring the feedback concept to the quantum world faces a fundamental difficulty: quantum measurement changes randomly the state of the system and this change must be taken into account in the feedback procedure. In our first demonstration experiment, we have chosen as an operating point a fixed photon number in our cavity. The “eye” in this “photon juggling game” is the beam of Rydberg atoms which performs a weak QND measurement extracting a partial information about the photon number. The “brain” is a computer using this information to estimate in real time the state of the field in the cavity and the “hand” is a classical microwave source feeding the cavity. These operations are performed in successive loops bringing the field towards the desired photon number. Subsequent quantum jumps of the field are detected by the computer and their effect is reversed by the feedback procedure. In this way, a pre-determined photon number is maintained in a steady state. We hope to be able to extend soon these experiments to the protection of other non-classical states such as Schrödinger cats of radiation.
Invited speaker: Dr. Peter Rosenbusch
Affiliation: Observatoire de Paris
Title: Atomic Clocks, Exchange Interaction And Giant Coherence Times
Time and room: 17:15, lecture hall IAP
Abstract: Thanks to atomic clocks the second is the best realised SI unit with a relative accuracy of today 2x 10^-16. In addition to time keeping, these laboratory devices perform powerful tests of fundamental physics such as tests of general relativity or the constancy of constants. The SYRTE is the French national laboratory of standards regarding time and frequency. It operates about 15 clocks and interferometers using laser cooled atoms of various kinds. We will present an overview of the SYRTE’s activities including strategies to improve the clock and interferometer sensitivity. We will focus on a Trapped Atom Clock on a Chip, where magnetic confinement is used to increase the experiment time and hence reduce the spectroscopic linewidth. The trap increases the atom density by 4 orders of magnitude such that novel phenomena arise from the atom-atom interactions: for an ensemble of thermal atoms, we observe giant coherence times of 58+/-12 s. The underlying new mechanism based on the exchange interaction is of such a general nature that it is applicable in many cold atom experiments and possibly other systems.