We demonstrate a method for determining the three-dimensional location of single atoms in a quantum gas microscopy system using a phase-only spatial light modulator to modify the point-spread function of the high-resolution imaging system. Here, the typical diffracted spot generated by a single atom as a point source is modified to a double spot that rotates as a function of the atom's distance from the focal plane of the imaging system. We present and numerically validate a simple model linking the rotation angle of the point-spread function with the distance to the focal plane. We show that, when aberrations in the system are carefully calibrated and compensated for, this method can be used to determine an atom's position to within a single lattice site in a single experimental image, extending quantum simulation with microscopy systems further into the regime of three dimensions.

}, Author = {Legrand, T. AND Winkelmann, F. AND Alt, W. AND Meschede, D. AND Alberti, A. AND Weidner, C. A.}, Journal = {Phys. Rev. A}, Pages = {033304}, Title = {{Three-dimensional imaging of single atoms in an optical lattice via helical point-spread-function engineering}}, Volume = {109}, Year = {2024} }