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Quantum technologies

Dieter Meschede's research group
Home Group members Arno Rauschenbeutel
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Group members
Professor Dr. Arno Rauschenbeutel
Present position: Technische Universität Wien
Last position
in our group:
Assistant
Field of research
in our group:
Cavity QED
 
 

Publications(up to 2011)

  • R. Garcia-Fernandez, W. Alt, F. Bruse, C. Dan, K. Karapetyan, O. Rehband, A. Stiebeiner, U. Wiedemann, D. Meschede and A. Rauschenbeutel
    Optical nanofibers and spectroscopy, Applied Physics B 105, 3–15 (2011)arXivBibTeXPDF
    ABSTRACT »
    We review our recent progress in the production and characterization of tapered optical fibers with a sub-wavelength diameter waist. Such fibers exhibit a pronounced evanescent field and are therefore a useful tool for highly sensitive evanescent wave spectroscopy of adsorbates on the fiber waist or of the medium surrounding. We use a carefully designed flame pulling process that allows us to realize preset fiber diameter profiles. In order to determine the waist diameter and to verify the fiber profile, we employ scanning electron microscope measurements and a novel accurate in situ optical method based on harmonic generation. We use our fibers for linear and non-linear absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy of surface-adsorbed organic molecules and investigate their agglomeration dynamics. Furthermore, we apply our spectroscopic method to quantum dots on the surface of the fiber waist and to caesium vapor surrounding the fiber. Finally, towards dispersive measurements, we present our first results on building and testing a single-fiber bi-modal interferometer.
  • M. Khudaverdyan, W. Alt, I. Dotsenko, T. Kampschulte, K. Lenhard, A. Rauschenbeutel, S. Reick, K. Schörner, A. Widera and D. Meschede
    Controlled insertion and retrieval of atoms coupled to a high-finesse optical resonator, New J. Phys. 10, 073023 (2008)arXivBibTeXPDF
    ABSTRACT »
    We experimentally investigate the interaction between one and two atoms and the field of a high-finesse optical resonator. Laser-cooled caesium atoms are transported into the cavity using an optical dipole trap. We monitor the interaction dynamics of a single atom strongly coupled to the resonator mode for several hundred milliseconds by observing the cavity transmission. Moreover, we investigate the position-dependent coupling of one and two atoms by shuttling them through the cavity mode. We demonstrate an alternative method, which suppresses heating effects, to analyze the atom-field interaction by retrieving the atom from the cavity and by measuring its final state.
  • G. Sagué, E. Vetsch, W. Alt, D. Meschede and A. Rauschenbeutel
    Cold-Atom Physics Using Ultrathin Optical Fibers: Light-Induced Dipole Forces and Surface Interactions, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 163602 (2007)arXivBibTeXPDF
    ABSTRACT »
    The strong evanescent field around ultrathin unclad optical fibers bears a high potential for detecting, trapping, and manipulating cold atoms. Introducing such a fiber into a cold-atom cloud, we investigate the interaction of a small number of cold cesium atoms with the guided fiber mode and with the fiber surface. Using high resolution spectroscopy, we observe and analyze light-induced dipole forces, van der Waals interaction, and a significant enhancement of the spontaneous emission rate of the atoms. The latter can be assigned to the modification of the vacuum modes by the fiber.
  • M. Haas, V. Leung, D. Frese, D. Haubrich, S. John, C. Weber, A. Rauschenbeutel and D. Meschede
    Species-selective microwave cooling of a mixture of rubidium and caesium atoms, New J. Phys. 9, 147 (2007)BibTeXPDF
    ABSTRACT »
    We have sympathetically cooled a small sample of 133Cs atoms with 87Rb to below 1 μK. Evaporative cooling was realized with microwave radiation driving the Rb ground-state hyperfine transition. By analysing the sympathetic cooling dynamics, we derive a lower limit of the modulus of the Rb–Cs interspecies triplet s-wave scattering length of 200 a_0. For temperatures below 5 μK we observe strong non-exponential losses of the Cs sample in the presence of the Rb sample.
  • F. Warken, E. Vetsch, D. Meschede, M. Sokolowski and A. Rauschenbeutel
    Ultra-sensitive surface absorption spectroscopy using sub-wavelength diameter optical fibers, Opt. Express 15, 11952-11958 (2007)arXivBibTeXPDF
    ABSTRACT »
    The guided modes of sub-wavelength diameter air-clad optical fibers exhibit a pronounced evanescent field. The absorption of particles on the fiber surface is therefore readily detected via the fiber transmission. We show that the resulting absorption for a given surface coverage can be orders of magnitude higher than for conventional surface spectroscopy. As a demonstration, we present measurements on sub-monolayers of 3,4,9,10-perylene-tetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) molecules at ambient conditions, revealing the agglomeration dynamics on a second to minutes timescale.
  • Y. Miroshnychenko, W. Alt, I. Dotsenko, L. Förster, M. Khudaverdyan, D. Meschede, D. Schrader and A. Rauschenbeutel
    An atom-sorting machine, Nature 442, 151 (2006)BibTeX
    ABSTRACT »
    Laser cooling and trapping techniques allow us to control and manipulate neutral atoms. Here we rearrange, with submicrometre precision, the positions and ordering of laser-trapped atoms within strings by manipulating individual atoms with optical tweezers. Strings of equidistant atoms created in this way could serve as a scalable memory for quantum information.
  • D. Meschede and A. Rauschenbeutel
    Manipulating single atoms, Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 53, 75 (2006)BibTeXPDF
    ABSTRACT »
    Neutral atoms are interesting candidates for experimentally investigating the transition from well-understood quantum objects to many particle and macroscopic physics. Furthermore, the ability to control neutral atoms at the single atom level opens new routes to applications such as quantum information processing and metrology. We summarize experimental methods and findings in the preparation, detection, and manipulation of trapped individual neutral atoms. The high efficiency and the observed long coherence times of the presented methods are favorable for future applications in quantum information processing.
  • Y. Miroshnychenko, W. Alt, I. Dotsenko, L. Förster, M. Khudaverdyan, A. Rauschenbeutel and D. Meschede
    Precision preparation of strings of trapped neutral atoms, New J. Phys. 8, 191 (2006)arXivBibTeXPDF
    ABSTRACT »
    We have recently demonstrated the creation of regular strings of neutral caesium atoms in a standing wave optical dipole trap using optical tweezers [Y. Miroshnychenko et al., Nature, in press (2006)]. The rearrangement is realized atom-by-atom, extracting an atom and re-inserting it at the desired position with sub-micrometer resolution. We describe our experimental setup and present detailed measurements as well as simple analytical models for the resolution of the extraction process, for the precision of the insertion, and for heating processes. We compare two different methods of insertion, one of which permits the placement of two atoms into one optical micropotential. The theoretical models largely explain our experimental results and allow us to identify the main limiting factors for the precision and efficiency of the manipulations. Strategies for future improvements are discussed.
  • L. Förster, W. Alt, I. Dotsenko, M. Khudaverdyan, D. Meschede, Y. Miroshnychenko, S. Reick and A. Rauschenbeutel
    Number-triggered loading and collisional redistribution of neutral atoms in a standing wave dipole trap, New J. Phys. 8, 259 (2006)BibTeXPDF
    ABSTRACT »
    We implement a technique for loading a preset number of up to 19 atoms from a magneto-optical trap into a standing wave optical dipole trap. The efficiency of our technique is characterized by measuring the atom number before and after the loading process. Our analysis reveals details of the trap dynamics that are usually masked when working with larger atomic ensembles. In particular, we identify a low-loss collisional blockade mechanism. It forces the atoms to redistribute in the periodic potential until they are all stored in individual trapping sites, thereby strongly reducing site occupation number fluctuations.
  • Y. Miroshnychenko, W. Alt, I. Dotsenko, L. Förster, M. Khudaverdyan, D. Meschede, S. Reick and A. Rauschenbeutel
    Inserting two atoms into a single optical micropotential, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 243003 (2006)arXivBibTeXPDF
    ABSTRACT »
    We recently demonstrated that strings of trapped atoms inside a standing wave optical dipole trap can be rearranged using optical tweezers [Y. Miroshnychenko et al., Nature, in press (2006)]. This technique allows us to actively set the interatomic separations on the scale of the individual trapping potential wells. Here, we use such a distance-control operation to insert two atoms into the same potential well. The detected success rate of this manipulation is 16(+4/-3) %, in agreement with the predictions of a theoretical model based on our independently determined experimental parameters.
  • M. Khudaverdyan, W. Alt, I. Dotsenko, L. Förster, S. Kuhr, D. Meschede, Y. Miroshnychenko, D. Schrader and A. Rauschenbeutel
    Adiabatic Quantum State Manipulation of Single Trapped Atoms, Phys. Rev. A 71, 031404 (2005)arXivBibTeXPDF
    ABSTRACT »
    We use microwave induced adiabatic passages for selective spin flips within a string of optically trapped individual neutral Cs atoms. We position-dependently shift the atomic transition frequency with a magnetic field gradient. To flip the spin of a selected atom, we optically measure its position and sweep the microwave frequency across its respective resonance frequency. We analyze the addressing resolution and the experimental robustness of this scheme. Furthermore, we show that adiabatic spin flips can also be induced with a fixed microwave frequency by deterministically transporting the atoms across the position of resonance.
  • I. Dotsenko, W. Alt, M. Khudaverdyan, S. Kuhr, D. Meschede, Y. Miroshnychenko, D. Schrader and A. Rauschenbeutel
    Submicrometer position control of single trapped neutral atoms, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 033002 (2005)arXivBibTeXPDF
    ABSTRACT »
    We optically detect the positions of single neutral cesium atoms stored in a standing wave dipole trap with a sub-wavelength resolution of 143 nm rms. The distance between two simultaneously trapped atoms is measured with an even higher precision of 36 nm rms. We resolve the discreteness of the interatomic distances due to the 532 nm spatial period of the standing wave potential and infer the exact number of trapping potential wells separating the atoms. Finally, combining an initial position detection with a controlled transport, we place single atoms at a predetermined position along the trap axis to within 300 nm rms.
  • Y. Louyer, D. Meschede and A. Rauschenbeutel
    Tunable Whispering Gallery Mode Resonators for Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics, Phys. Rev. A 72, 031801(R) (2005)arXivBibTeXPDF
    ABSTRACT »
    We theoretically study the properties of highly prolate shaped dielectric microresonators. Such resonators sustain whispering gallery modes that exhibit two spatially well separated regions with enhanced field strength. The field per photon on the resonator surface is significantly higher than e.g. for equatorial whispering gallery modes in microsphere resonators with a comparable mode volume. At the same time, the frequency spacing of these modes is much more favorable, so that a tuning range of several free spectral ranges should be attainable. We discuss the possible application of such resonators for cavity quantum electrodynamics experiments with neutral atoms and reveal distinct advantages with respect to existing concepts.
  • S. Kuhr, W. Alt, D. Schrader, I. Dotsenko, Y. Miroshnychenko, A. Rauschenbeutel and D. Meschede
    Analysis of dephasing mechanisms in a standing-wave dipole trap, Phys. Rev. A 72, 023406 (2005)arXivBibTeXPDF
    ABSTRACT »
    We study in detail the mechanisms causing dephasing of hyperfine coherences of cesium atoms confined by a far off-resonant standing wave optical dipole trap [S. Kuhr et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 213002 (2003)]. Using Ramsey spectroscopy and spin echo techniques, we measure the reversible and irreversible dephasing times of the ground state coherences. We present an analytical model to interpret the experimental data and identify the homogeneous and inhomogeneous dephasing mechanisms. Our scheme to prepare and detect the atomic hyperfine state is applied at the level of a single atom as well as for ensembles of up to 50 atoms.
  • D. Schrader, I. Dotsenko, M. Khudaverdyan, Y. Miroshnychenko, A. Rauschenbeutel and D. Meschede
    Neutral Atom Quantum Register, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 150501 (2004)arXivBibTeXPDF
    ABSTRACT »
    We demonstrate the realization of a quantum register using a string of single neutral atoms which are trapped in an optical dipole trap. The atoms are selectively and coherently manipulated in a magnetic field gradient using microwave radiation. Our addressing scheme operates with a high spatial resolution and qubit rotations on individual atoms are performed with 99% contrast. In a final read-out operation we analyze each individual atomic state. Finally, we have measured the coherence time and identified the predominant dephasing mechanism for our register.
  • I. Dotsenko, W. Alt, S. Kuhr, D. Schrader, M. Müller, Y. Miroshnychenko, V. Gomer, A. Rauschenbeutel and D. Meschede
    Application of electro-optically generated light fields for Raman spectroscopy of trapped Cesium atoms, Appl. Phys. B 78, 711-717 (2004)BibTeXPDF
    ABSTRACT »
    We present an apparatus for generating a multi-frequency laser field to coherently couple the F=3 and F=4 ground state of trapped cesium atoms through Raman transitions. We use a single frequency diode laser and generate sidebands by means of a 9.2 GHz electro-optic modulator. With an interferometer, we separated the sidebands and carrier, sending them to the trapped atoms in opposite directions. The Rabi oscillation of the populations of F=3 and F=4 is monitored. We find that due to destructive quantum interference of two simultaneous Raman transitions the expected Rabi frequency is reduced by a factor that is in quantitative agreement with theoretical expectations. It is demonstrated how this interference can be suppressed experimentally. Besides, we demonstrate the application of the setup for Raman spectroscopy of Zeeman sublevels and of the vibrational states of a small number of trapped atoms.
  • Y. Miroshnychenko, D. Schrader, S. Kuhr, W. Alt, I. Dotsenko, M. Khudaverdyan, A. Rauschenbeutel and D. Meschede
    Continued imaging of the transport of a single neutral atom, Opt. Express 11, 3498-3502 (2003)BibTeXPDF
    ABSTRACT »
    We have continuously imaged the controlled motion of a single atom as well as of a small number of distinguishable atoms with observation times exceeding one minute. The Cesium atoms are confined to potential wells of a standing wave optical dipole trap which allows to transport them over macroscopic distances. The atoms are imaged by an intensified CCD camera, and spatial resolution near the diffraction limit is obtained.
  • D. Schrader, S. Kuhr, W. Alt, Y. Miroshnychenko, I. Dotsenko, W. Rosenfeld, M. Khudaverdyan, V. Gomer, A. Rauschenbeutel and D. Meschede
    Controlled transport of single neutral atom qubits, Proceedings of the 16th ICOLS, (2003)BibTeX
    ABSTRACT »
    We have prepared and detected quantum coherences of trapped cesium atoms with long dephasing times. Controlled transport by an “optical conveyor belt” over macroscopic distances preserves the atomic coherence with slight reduction of coherence time. The dominating dephasing effects are experimentally identified and found to be of technical rather than fundamental nature.
  • S. Kuhr, W. Alt, D. Schrader, I. Dotsenko, Y. Miroshnychenko, W. Rosenfeld, M. Khudaverdyan, V. Gomer, A. Rauschenbeutel and D. Meschede
    Coherence properties and quantum state transportation in an optical conveyor belt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 213002 (2003)arXivBibTeXPDF
    ABSTRACT »
    We have prepared and detected quantum coherences with long dephasing times at the level of single trapped cesium atoms. Controlled transport by an "optical conveyor belt" over macroscopic distances preserves the atomic coherence with slight reduction of coherence time. The limiting dephasing effects are experimentally identified and are of technical rather than fundamental nature. We present an analytical model of the reversible and irreversible dephasing mechanisms. Coherent quantum bit operations along with quantum state transport open the route towards a "quantum shift register" of individual neutral atoms.
  • A. Rauschenbeutel, H. Schadwinkel, V. Gomer and D. Meschede
    Standing light fields for cold atoms with intrinsically stable and variable time phases, Opt. Comm. 148, 45 (1998)BibTeXPDF
    ABSTRACT »
    We present a novel method to realise a standing light field with a stable configuration in two or three dimensions. A single standing wave formed by two counterpropagating beams is folded and brought into intersection with itself. The values of the relative timephases are stable, a priori known, and can be altered arbitrarily by means of retardation plates. The polarisation configurations of three orthogonal standing waves include the standard magnetooptical trap and a novel three-dimensional pure polarisation lattice which we have investigated in a first spectroscopic measurement, providing strong evidence for atomic localisation in both cases.
  • A. Rauschenbeutel
    Ein neuartiges Konzept zur Kontrolle der relativen Zeitphasen in lichtgebundenen Atomgittern, (1997), Diplom thesisBibTeX