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Quantum technologies

Dieter Meschede's research group
Home Group members Lothar Ratschbacher
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Group members
Dr. Lothar Ratschbacher
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Last position
in our group:
Postdoc
Field of research
in our group:
Fibre cavity QED
Optical microfibres
 

Publications(up to 2017)

  • M. Martinez-Dorantes, W. Alt, J. Gallego, S. Ghosh, L. Ratschbacher, Y. Völzke and D. Meschede
    Fast Nondestructive Parallel Readout of Neutral Atom Registers in Optical Potentials, Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 180503 (2017)arXivBibTeXPDF
    ABSTRACT »

    We demonstrate the parallel and nondestructive readout of the hyperfine state for optically trapped 87Rb atoms. The scheme is based on state-selective fluorescence imaging and achieves detection fidelities > 98% within 10 ms, while keeping 99% of the atoms trapped. For the readout of dense arrays of neutral atoms in optical lattices, where the fluorescence images of neighboring atoms overlap, we apply a novel image analysis technique using Bayesian inference to determine the internal state of multiple atoms. Our method is scalable to large neutral atom registers relevant for future quantum information processing tasks requiring fast and nondestructive readout and can also be used for the simultaneous readout of quantum information stored in internal qubit states and in the atoms’ positions.

  • J. Gallego, S. Ghosh, S. K. Alavi, W. Alt, M. Martinez-Dorantes, D. Meschede and L. Ratschbacher
    High Finesse Fiber Fabry-Perot Cavities: Stabilization and Mode Matching Analysis, Appl. Phys. B 122, 47 (2016)arXivBibTeXPDF
    ABSTRACT »

    Fiber Fabry-Perot cavities, formed by micro-machined mirrors on the end-facets of optical fibers, are used in an increasing number of technical and scientific applications, where they typically require precise stabilization of their optical resonances. Here, we study two different approaches to construct fiber Fabry-Perot resonators and stabilize their length for experiments in cavity quantum electrodynamics with neutral atoms. A piezo-mechanically actuated cavity with feedback based on the Pound-Drever-Hall locking technique is compared to a novel rigid cavity design that makes use of the high passive stability of a monolithic cavity spacer and employs thermal self-locking and external temperature tuning. Furthermore, we present a general analysis of the mode matching problem in fiber Fabry-Perot cavities, which explains the asymmetry in their reflective line shapes and has important implications for the optimal alignment of the fiber resonators. Finally, we discuss the issue of fiber-generated background photons. We expect that our results contribute towards the integration of high-finesse fiber Fabry-Perot cavities into compact and robust quantum-enabled devices in the future.

  • R. Reimann, W. Alt, T. Kampschulte, T. Macha, L. Ratschbacher, N. Thau, S. Yoon and D. Meschede
    Cavity-Modified Collective Rayleigh Scattering of Two Atoms, Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 023601 (2015)arXivBibTeXPDF
    ABSTRACT »

    We report on the observation of cooperative radiation of exactly two neutral atoms strongly coupled to the single mode field of an optical cavity, which is close to the lossless-cavity limit. Monitoring the cavity output power, we observe constructive and destructive interference of collective Rayleigh scattering for certain relative distances between the two atoms. Because of cavity backaction onto the atoms, the cavity output power for the constructive two-atom case (N=2) is almost equal to the single-emitter case (N=1), which is in contrast to free-space where one would expect an N^2 scaling of the power. These effects are quantitatively explained by a classical model as well as by a quantum mechanical model based on Dicke states. We extract information on the relative phases of the light fields at the atom positions and employ advanced cooling to reduce the jump rate between the constructive and destructive atom configurations. Thereby we improve the control over the system to a level where the implementation of two-atom entanglement schemes involving optical cavities becomes realistic.

  • R. Reimann, W. Alt, T. Macha, D. Meschede, N. Thau, S. Yoon and L. Ratschbacher
    Carrier-free Raman manipulation of trapped neutral atoms, New J. Phys. 16, 113042 (2014)arXivBibTeXPDF
    ABSTRACT »

    We experimentally realize an enhanced Raman control scheme for neutral atoms that features an intrinsic suppression of the two-photon carrier transition, but retains the sidebands which couple to the external degrees of freedom of the trapped atoms. This is achieved by trapping the atom at the node of a blue detuned standing wave dipole trap, that acts as one field for the two-photon Raman coupling. The improved ratio between cooling and heating processes in this configuration enables a five times lower fundamental temperature limit for resolved sideband cooling. We apply this method to perform Raman cooling to the two-dimensional vibrational ground state and to coherently manipulate the atomic motion. The presented scheme requires minimal additional resources and can be applied to experiments with challenging optical access, as we demonstrate by our implementation for atoms strongly coupled to an optical cavity.

  • L. Ratschbacher, C. Sias, L. Carcagni, J. M. Silver, C. Zipkes and M. Köhl
    Decoherence of a Single-Ion Qubit Immersed in a Spin-Polarized Atomic Bath, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 160402 (2013)BibTeX
    ABSTRACT »
    We report on the immersion of a spin qubit encoded in a single trapped ion into a spin-polarized neutral atom environment, which possesses both continuous (motional) and discrete (spin) degrees of freedom. The environment offers the possibility of a precise microscopic description, which allows us to understand dynamics and decoherence from first principles. We observe the spin dynamics of the qubit and measure the decoherence times (T1 and T2), which are determined by the spin-exchange interaction as well as by an unexpectedly strong spin-nonconserving coupling mechanism.
  • L. Ratschbacher, C. Zipkes, C. Sias and M. Köhl
    Controlling chemical reactions of a single particle, Nature Physics 8, 649 (2012)BibTeX
    ABSTRACT »
    Traditionally, chemical reactions have been investigated by tuning thermodynamic parameters, such as temperature or pressure. More recently, laser or magnetic field control methods have emerged to provide new experimental possibilities, in particular in the realm of cold collisions. The control of reaction pathways is also a critical component to implement molecular quantum information processing. For these studies, single particles provide a clean and well-controlled experimental system. Here, we report on the experimental tuning of the exchange reaction rates of a single trapped ion with ultracold neutral atoms by exerting control over both their quantum states. We observe the influence of the hyperfine interaction on chemical reaction rates and branching ratios, and monitor the kinematics of the reaction products. These investigations advance chemistry with single trapped particles towards achieving quantum-limited control of chemical reactions and indicate limits for buffer-gas cooling of single-ion clocks.
  • X. Ma, J. Kofler, A. Qarry, N. Tetik, T. Scheidl, R. Ursin, S. Ramelow, T. Herbst, L. Ratschbacher, A. Fedrizzi, T. Jennewein and A. Zeilinger
    Quantum erasure with causally disconnected choice, PNAS 110, 1221 (2012)BibTeX
    ABSTRACT »
    The counterintuitive features of quantum physics challenge many common-sense assumptions. In an interferometric quantum eraser experiment, one can actively choose whether or not to erase which-path information (a particle feature) of one quantum system and thus observe its wave feature via interference or not by performing a suitable measurement on a distant quantum system entangled with it. In all experiments performed to date, this choice took place either in the past or, in some delayed-choice arrangements, in the future of the interference. Thus, in principle, physical communications between choice and interference were not excluded. Here, we report a quantum eraser experiment in which, by enforcing Einstein locality, no such communication is possible. This is achieved by independent active choices, which are space-like separated from the interference. Our setup employs hybrid path-polarization entangled photon pairs, which are distributed over an optical fiber link of 55 m in one experiment, or over a free-space link of 144 km in another. No naive realistic picture is compatible with our results because whether a quantum could be seen as showing particle- or wave-like behavior would depend on a causally disconnected choice. It is therefore suggestive to abandon such pictures altogether.
  • H. M. Meyer, M. Steiner, L. Ratschbacher, C. Zipkes and M. Köhl
    Laser spectroscopy and cooling of Yb+ ions on a deep-UV transition, Phys. Rev. A 85, 012502 (2012)BibTeX
    ABSTRACT »
    We perform laser spectroscopy of Yb+ ions on the 4f146s 2 S1/2-4f^135d6s^3 D[3/2]1/2 transition at 297 nm. The frequency measurements for 170Yb+, 172Yb+, 174Yb+, and 176Yb+ reveal the specific mass shift as well as the field shifts. In addition, we demonstrate laser cooling of Yb+ ions using this transition and show that light at 297 nm can be used as the second step in the photoionization of neutral Yb atoms.
  • C. Zipkes, L. Ratschbacher, C. Sias and M. Köhl
    Kinetics of a single trapped ion in an ultracold buffer gas, New Journal of Physics 13, 053020+ (2011)BibTeX
    ABSTRACT »
    The immersion of a single ion confined by a radiofrequency (RF) trap in an ultracold atomic gas extends the concept of buffer gas cooling to a new temperature regime. The steady-state energy distribution of the ion is determined by its kinetics in the RF field rather than the temperature of the buffer gas. Moreover, the finite size of the ultracold gas facilitates the observation of back-action of the ion onto the buffer gas. We numerically investigate the system's properties depending on atom–ion mass ratio, trap geometry, differential cross-section and non-uniform neutral atom density distribution. Experimental results are well reproduced by our model considering only elastic collisions. We identify excess micromotion to set the typical scale for the ion energy statistics and explore the applicability of the mobility collision cross-section to the ultracold regime.
  • C. Zipkes, S. Palzer, L. Ratschbacher, C. Sias and M. Köhl
    Cold Heteronuclear Atom-Ion Collisions, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 133201 (2010)BibTeX
    ABSTRACT »
    We study cold heteronuclear atom-ion collisions by immersing a trapped single ion into an ultracold atomic cloud. Using ultracold atoms as reaction targets, our measurement is sensitive to elastic collisions with extremely small energy transfer. The observed energy-dependent elastic atom-ion scattering rate deviates significantly from the prediction of Langevin but is in full agreement with the quantum mechanical cross section. Additionally, we characterize inelastic collisions leading to chemical reactions at the single particle level and measure the energy-dependent reaction rate constants. The reaction products are identified by in-trap mass spectrometry, revealing the branching ratio between radiative and nonradiative charge exchange processes.
  • T. Scheidl, R. Ursin, J. Kofler, S. Ramelow, X. Ma, T. Herbst, L. Ratschbacher, A. Fedrizzi, N. K. Langford, T. Jennewein and A. Zeilinger
    Violation of local realism with freedom of choice, PNAS 107, 19708 (2010)BibTeX
    ABSTRACT »
    Bell’s theorem shows that local realistic theories place strong restrictions on observable correlations between different systems, giving rise to Bell’s inequality which can be violated in experiments using entangled quantum states. Bell’s theorem is based on the assumptions of realism, locality, and the freedom to choose between measurement settings. In experimental tests, “loopholes” arise which allow observed violations to still be explained by local realistic theories. Violating Bell’s inequality while simultaneously closing all such loopholes is one of the most significant still open challenges in fundamental physics today. In this paper, we present an experiment that violates Bell’s inequality while simultaneously closing the locality loophole and addressing the freedom-of-choice loophole, also closing the latter within a reasonable set of assumptions. We also explain that the locality and freedom-of-choice loopholes can be closed only within nondeterminism, i.e., in the context of stochastic local realism.
  • S. Ramelow, L. Ratschbacher, A. Fedrizzi, N. K. Langford and A. Zeilinger
    Discrete Tunable Color Entanglement, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 253601 (2009)BibTeX
    ABSTRACT »
    Although frequency multiplexing of information has revolutionized the field of classical communications, the color degree of freedom (DOF) has been used relatively little for quantum applications. We experimentally demonstrate a new hybrid quantum gate that transfers polarization entanglement of nondegenerate photons onto the color DOF. We create, for the first time, high-quality, discretely color-entangled states (with energy band gap up to 8.4 THz) without any spectrally selective filtering, and unambiguously verify and quantify the amount of entanglement (tangle, 0.611±0.009) by reconstructing a restricted density matrix; we generate a range of maximally entangled states, including a set of mutually unbiased bases for an encoded qubit space. The technique can be generalized to transfer polarization entanglement onto other photonic DOFs, like orbital angular momentum.
  • T. Scheidl, R. Ursin, A. Fedrizzi, S. Ramelow, X. Ma, T. Herbst, R. Prevedel, L. Ratschbacher, J. Kofler, T. Jennewein and A. Zeilinger
    Feasibility of 300km quantum key distribution with entangled states, New Journal of Physics 11, 085002+ (2009)BibTeX
    ABSTRACT »
    A significant limitation of practical quantum key distribution (QKD) setups is currently their limited operational range. It has recently been emphasized (Ma et al 2007 Phys. Rev. A 76 012307) that entanglement-based QKD systems can tolerate higher channel losses than systems based on weak coherent laser pulses (WCP), in particular, when the source is located symmetrically between the two communicating parties, Alice and Bob. In the work presented here, we experimentally study this important advantage by implementing different entanglement-based QKD setups on a 144 km free-space link between the two Canary Islands of La Palma and Tenerife. We established three different configurations where the entangled photon source was placed at Alice's location, asymmetrically between Alice and Bob and symmetrically in the middle between Alice and Bob, respectively. The resulting quantum channel attenuations of 35, 58 and 71 dB, respectively, significantly exceed the limit for WCP systems (Ma et al 2007 Phys. Rev. A 76 012307). This confirms that QKD over distances of 300 km and even more is feasible with entangled state sources placed in the middle between Alice and Bob.