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Dieter Meschedes Forschungsgruppe
Home Systeme aus wenigen Atomen Doktor- Master- u. Bachelorarbeiten
Doktor- Master- u. Bachelorarbeiten - Systeme aus wenigen Atomen


  • M. R. Lam
    Probing the quantum speed limit of atomic matter waves in optical lattices, (2021), DoktorarbeitBibTeXPDF
    The development of quantum technologies requires a deep knowledge of quantum systems and a high level of control of quantum states. In this thesis I report on my contribution to three areas that are important to quantum technologies: (i) Imaging of quantum states (ii) Fast transport of matter wave packets (iii) Estimation of the speed limit of quantum evolution. The platform here used consists of single neutral 133 Cs atoms trapped in a state dependent optical lattice potential. The control over the internal state of the atoms and the potential landscape is used as a tool to study the atomic wave packet dynamics.
    In the first part of the thesis I present the experimental setup as well as various experimental techniques that are required for the measurements presented in the following chapters. Two new implementations have been done in order to realize the desired measurements. One of them is a technique to measure the motional ground state population fraction, with an accuracy that is robust over a wide range of temperatures of the thermal ensemble. The second one is a pair of Raman beams to couple two hyperfine states with Rabi frequencies of around 6.5 MHz. Much faster than the observed wave packet dynamics.
    In chapter 3, I present a new technique to obtain time-resolved single-pixel images of quantum wave packets using Ramsey interferometry. The technique shares a clear analogy to classical optical imaging and can be potentially extended to obtain multi-pixel images that contain the same information as the full wave function. Even though the measurements presented in this thesis are restricted to single-pixel images, important information is extracted from them, including the Hamiltonian moments, the energy spectrum of the Hamiltonian and the population probabilities in the basis of motional eigenstates.
    In the last part of the thesis, the quantum speed limit of two different processes are studied. In chapter 4, the Mandelstam-Tamm and the Margolus-Levitin bounds are verified for atomic wave packets in a static optical lattice potential. The bounds impose a limit to the maximum rate of change of a quantum state. Two different regimes are covered: one where the Mandelstam-Tamm bound is more restrictive and one where the Margolus-Levitin bound is more restrictive. Moreover, it has been observed that the atomic wave packets evolve at a rate very close to the limit imposed by the Mandelstam-Tamm bound. In chapter 5, the speed limit of a different quantum process is studied, namely, fast atom transport without motional excitations over distances much longer than the width of the atomic wave packet. The transport trajectories are obtained with optimal quantum control, making possible to realize transport operations down to the shortest fundamental duration - the quantum speed limit. The Mandelstam-Tamm bound is found to predict an absurdly small estimate of the minimum transport duration, but a meaningful bound consistent with the measured speed limit is obtained based on geometric arguments.
  • F. G. H. Winkelmann
    Optical plane selection in a dipole trap, (2021), DoktorarbeitBibTeXPDF
    Quantum technology has advanced considerably within the last decades [1, 2]. Quantum simulators are among the primary goals of this ongoing „quantum revolution“ [3]. They promise insight into many-particle phenomena that are too complex to study on classical machines [4].
    In this thesis, I present my contribution to the discrete-time quantum walk simulator (DQSIM) experiment. We trap neutral cesium atom in a two dimensional state-dependent optical lattice [5], with the goal of realizing two-dimensional discrete-time quantum walks [6] and multi-particle entanglement [7].
    The atoms are imaged using a high numerical objective lens [8] that allows us to resolve the spatial distribution inside the lattice. An additional retro-reflected beam provides state-independent confinement along the imaging axis. To measure multi-particle interference, we have to confine the atomic ensemble to a single layer along the imaging axis. I propose a novel way of plane selection with neutral cesium atoms in an optical dipole trap utilizing artificial magnetic fields created by a gradient of polarization. The preparation of thin volumes is demonstrated. With further careful adjustment of the experimental parameters, this technique will enable the selection of single planes.
    We have to apply a magnetic guiding field to enable state-dependent transport of atoms. I designed a current stealing circuit to enable the long coherence times required for quantum simulations. The magnetic guiding field is stabilized to the level of 1 ppm. We measure a coherence time in free fall of T 2 =1.7 (1.4|2.1) ms. Vertical magnetic field gradients appear to be the limiting factor. With plane selection, coherence times of several tens of ms appear possible. This will allow for quantum walks with several hundred steps. The state-dependent potential of the DQSIM experiment can also be used to reconstruct the vibrational state of neutral atoms. I numerically investigate a novel scheme to probe the Wigner function by directly measuring the expectation value of the displaced parity operator. Measuring the parity operator requires us to tune the lattice depth dynamically. Displacing the atoms purely in position space without transferring momentum requires fast modulation of the lattice position. I demonstrate that we can use the processing capabilities of our digital intensity and phase control to achieve this. Stable operation over a large dynamical range is realized by linearizing the system response. Feed-forward control of the lattice position in conjunction with internal model control increases the modulation bandwidth from 230 kHz to 3.3 MHz.
    Precise control over the vibrational degree of freedom is a prerequisite to preparing arbitrary states of motion, such as Fock states. I demonstrate Raman sideband cooling along the vertical direction using the D1 transition of cesium. This complements the microwave mediated sideband cooling that we use to cool horizontally.
    Finally, I discuss possible future experiments such as the release-retrap technique to enhance the filling factor in the center of the trap [9, 10], magnetic quantum walks [11], and direct measurement of the exchange phase of indistinguishable particles [12].
  • G. Ramola
    Ramsey Imaging of Optical Dipole Traps and its applications in building a 3D optical lattice, (2021), DoktorarbeitBibTeXPDF
    In this work, I present the experimental realization of two-dimensional state-dependent transport of cesium atoms trapped in a three-dimensional optical lattice. Leveraging the ability to state-dependently transport atoms, I demonstrate microwave photon mediated sideband cooling to the motional ground state along two dimensions. Once cooled down to the vibrational ground state, we use these atoms as sensitive probes to detect both magnetic field gradients and optical field inhomogeneities, by means of Ramsey interferometry. This enables us to perform Ramsey imaging of optical dipole traps, an essential technique which helps in the precise alignment of optical beams inside the vacuum cell.
    In the first part of the thesis, I introduce the main experimental apparatus of the Discrete Quantum Simulator (DQSIM) machine, as our experiment is known, with emphasis on the technical improvements over the past few years, such as increasing the atom filling in our optical lattice from double digits to a few thousand. Using these atoms as magnetic probes, I confirm the expected magnetic shielding factor of about 2000 from the mu-metal shielding enclosing the vacuum cell. I finally discuss the control we have over the internal state of the atoms, with a measured Rabi frequency of Ω≈2π × 200 kHz.
    In chapter 3, I introduce the concept of state-dependent transport, which forms the basis of most experiments planned with the DQSIM machine. I go on to discuss the polarization synthesizer, the technical backbone of the state-dependent optical lattices. The polarization synthesizer allows us to create any arbitrary polarization state of light, by independently controlling the phase and amplitude of each circular polarization component of a linearly polarized optical lattice beam. With two such polarization synthesizers implemented in the experiment, I report on the experimental realization of state-dependent transport in two dimensions. This is followed by the demonstration of microwave photon mediated ground state cooling in two dimensions, where we achieve a ground state population of about 95% along each dimension.
    In the following chapter, I introduce the Ramsey spectroscopy technique, a mainstay of high precision experiments. Using Ramsey spectroscopy, I investigate some sources of dephasing in our experiment, from inhomogeneous magnetic fields to differential light shifts. Based on these Ramsey measurements, I show that we can achieve coherence times greater than a millisecond if we restrict the region of interest in our optical lattice. Exploiting the high precision Ramsey interferometry further, in chapter 5, I introduce a versatile technique for the precise in-vacuo reconstruction of optical potentials. This Ramsey imaging technique is used to image the four laser beams that form our three-dimensional lattice, helping us align them with micrometer precision. In the final chapter, I summarize the work done in this thesis and discuss some future experiments that are planned for the DQSIM machine, from plane selection to two-dimensional quantum walks.


  • S. Witt
    Machine Learning-Assisted Identification of Atom Positions in Two-Dimensional Optical Lattices, (2020), BachelorarbeitBibTeX

    This work presents an alternative method for analyzing EMCCD-microscopy images of two-dimensional quantum optical lattices, using neuronal networks to automate the recognition of lattice occupation states. We introduce a multi-step algorithm, whose overall performance as well as step-by-step performance is analyzed, and which is compared to several different architectures. Training the networks requires a large amount of training data with known lattice occupation states. These images are simulated by convolution of the experimentally estimated point spread function of the imaging system with the atomic distribution masks. The algorithm allows for an accuracy of up to 99.76 % on our simulated data.

  • K. K. Chandrashekara
    A High-Power Ti:Sa Laser System for Atomic Quantum Walks Experiments, (2020), MasterarbeitBibTeXPDF

    This thesis details the experimental efforts towards quantification of laser frequency noise by the use of an optical frequency discriminator and its suppression by means of measuring and reducing optical path length differences to prevent heating and loss of ultracold Caesium atoms trapped in two-dimensional state-dependent optical lattice. The discriminator used is a Fabry-Perót cavity with the side-of-fringe locking technique to be sensitive to frequency fluctuations of the input light field which are detected as changes in the intensity of the cavity signal. The measured noise spectrum revealed the performance of the laser in the frequency domain and was used to refine the same. A reduction in the laser linewidth was achieved in this manner. The same cavity was also transformed in to a transfer cavity to prevent long-term drift in the laser frequency. The frequency noise cannot be completely eliminated from the laser and so the task then became the reduction of the optical path length differences in the experiment by which the noise can manifest at the postion of the atoms. Conditions for achieving minimal path length differences were derived. Three methods were employed to measure the path length differences: A geometric distance measurement, an optical measurement using interferometry and at last using the atoms. The use of the atoms in particular displayed the extent to which the common-mode frequency noise can influence the experiment.


  • T. Legrand
    Vergleich der Holografie und der direkten Abbildung mit dem räumlichen Lichtmodulator, (2019), BachelorarbeitBibTeXPDF

    Diese Bachelorarbeit beschäftigt sich mit dem LCoS räumlichen Lichtmodulator (SLM). Dabei soll die durch Phasenmodulation erfolgende Holografie und der auf Amplitudenmodulation beruhende Aufbau der direkten Abbildung verglichen werden. Insbesondere liegt das Augenmerk auf der Verwendung des SLM zur Erstellung von Intensitätsmustern im zweidimensionalen optischen Gitter des 2D discrete quantum simulator (DQSIM). Es wurden dafür Muster mit beiden Modulationsmodi aufgenommen und analysiert. Die direkte Abbildung liefert im Vergleich zur Holografie Muster mit besserer Ebenheit, Auflösung und Hintergrund-Dunkelheit bei vergleichbarem Kontrast und Signal-Rausch- Verhältnis. Die Holografie kann jedoch je nach Muster eine höhere Lichtausbeute bieten.

  • M. Omar
    Atom cloud compression in a 3D optical lattice and laser intensity stabilisation using an in-house developed photodiode amplifier, (2019), MasterarbeitBibTeXPDF

    Our group’s 2D Discrete Quantum Simulator (DQSIM) experiment is dedicated to the idea of a discrete time quantum walk. A quantum walk is the quantum mechanical analogue of a classical random walk. Discrete refers here to the timing in which evolution operators are applied to two quantum systems, a walker and a coin. It not only exhibits different statistics than the classical counterpart but may be employed in a multitude of ways. For example the experimental simulation of a perfect conductor in which Bloch oscillations are performed or the simulation of topological systems that are otherwise inaccessible in solid state physical scales.

    The first chapter reviews the DQSIM setup and necessary concepts to assess the place the content of the thesis is going to take within the experimental effort of our group. Then this thesis deals with two additions to the DQSIM experiment. The first part concerns a specifically designed photodiode amplifier circuit to improve the intensity stabilization of the lattice beams. Improving it would ensure that the coherence time of the atoms isn’t limited by intensity noise any more.

    The second part introduces a scheme to realize compression of atomic ensembles trapped in our optical lattice. Furthermore it is a first step in achieving an efficient single plane selection and addressing in our experiment opening the door to many-particle quantum walks. The thesis concludes with a discussion about initial experimental attempts on compression and a summary of the results.


  • M. Sajid
    Magnetic Quantum Walks of Neutral Atoms in Optical Lattices, (2018), DoktorarbeitBibTeXPDF

    This thesis focuses on the simulation of the physics of a charged particle under an external magnetic field by using discrete-time quantum walks of a spin-1/2 particle in a two-dimensional lattice. By Floquet-engineering the quantum-walk protocol, an Aharonov–Bohm geometric phase is imprinted onto closed-loop paths in the lattice, thus realizing an abelian gauge field—the analog of a magnetic flux threading a two-dimensional electron gas. I show that in the strong-field regime, i.e. when the flux per plaquette of the lattice is a sizable fraction of the flux quantum, magnetic quantum walks give rise to nearly flat energy bands. I demonstrate that the system behaves like a Chern insulator by computing the Chern numbers of the energy bands and studying the excitation of the midgap topologically protected edge modes. These modes are extended all along the boundaries of the magnetic domains and remain robust against perturbations that respect the gap closing conditions. Furthermore, I discuss a possible experimental implementation of this scheme using neutral atoms trapped in two dimensional spin-dependent optical lattices. The proposed scheme has a number of unique features, e.g. it allows one to generate arbitrary magnetic-field landscapes, including those with sharp boundaries along which topologically protected edge states can be localized and probed. Additionally, I introduce the scattering matrix approach in discrete-time quantum walks to probe the Hofstadter spectrum and compute its topological invariants. By opening up a discrete-time quantum walk system and connecting it to metallic leads, I demonstrate that the reflection/transmission probabilities of a particle from the scattering region give information on the energy spectrum and topological invariants of the system. Although the work presented here focuses on the physics of a single particle in a clean system, it sets the stage for studies of many-body topological states in the presence of interactions and disorder.

  • D. Löwen
    Intensitätsstabilisierung eines Lasers mit hoher Bandbreite, (2018), BachelorarbeitBibTeX

    Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit soll die Intensität eines Lasers über eine Feedback-Schleife stabilisiert werden, und dabei soll eine Bandbreite von über einem MHz erreicht werden, da Rauschen und Schwankungen bei diesen und höheren Frequenzen von den Atomen nicht mehr "wahrgenommen" werden. Es ist bereits möglich eine Stabilisierung der Intensität des Lasers mit einer Bandbreite bis zu ungefähr 100kHz aufzubauen. Dieser Aufbau soll in dieser Arbeit optimiert werden, um Rauschen bis zu mindestens einem MHz zu unterdrücken. Dabei soll hauptsächlich ein geeigneter Verstärker gebaut und so angepasst werden, dass er eine optimale Rauschunterdrückung gewährleistet.

  • T. Groh
    Fast transport of single atoms in optical lattices using quantum optimal control, (2018), MasterarbeitBibTeX

    This thesis describes the theoretical and experimental work for reaching fast, high fidelity transport operations of single cesium atoms in a state-dependent optical lattice. By applying optimal control theory to position and depth of the optical lattice potential and using a computer simulation judging the fidelity, fast transport sequences preserving the internal atomic quantum state and preventing any motional excitation can be identified. To allow transport times down to a few microseconds the feedback control system used for steering depth and position of the optical lattice deterministically is overdriven in a controlled way. Transport induced motional excitations are measured experimentally by means of a special microwave sideband spectroscopy, which is improved to reliably detect any excitation and allows a full tomography of the vibrational states of the anharmonic optical lattice potential. Optimal control sequences allowing single site transport of atoms in the oscillation period of the trapping potential are believed to reach the fundamental quantum speed limit of the system.

  • P. Du
    Optical Intensity Control Based on Digital and Analog Systems, (2018), MasterarbeitBibTeXPDF

    In our laboratory, we use cesium atoms, which are trapped in the optical lattices. For the practice of quantum walks, atoms must be well isolated from the noisy environment so that long decoherence time can be achieved. It has been analyzed that fluctuations of the lattice depth originated from intensity fluctuations is one mechanism of decoherence. To suppress the intensity noise of optical lattices, we implement an intensity stabilization control loop based on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) digital platform (Keysight AIO-H3336F). With the advantages of its integratability and flexibility, the application of digital control opens more possibilities for light intensity modulation. In addition to the intensity stabilization, a feedforward control of light intensity becomes feasible with the use of digital signal processing function of FPGA. The realization of intensity feedforward control provides us with a high bandwidth of intensity modulation as well as the conveniences of creating arbitrary intensity ramp implementation. Therefore, it plays an important role in our exploration into the physics related with a time-varying optical trap depth.


  • C. Robens
    Testing the Quantumness of Atom Trajectories, (2017), DoktorarbeitBibTeXPDF

    This thesis reports on a novel concept of state-dependent transport, which achieves an unprecedented control over the position of individual atoms in optical lattices. Utilizing this control I demonstrate an experimental violation of the Leggett Garg inequality, which rigorously excludes (i.e. falsifies) any explanation of quantum transport based on classical, well-defined trajectories. Furthermore, I demonstrate the generation of arbitrary low-entropy states of neutral atoms following a bottom-up approach by rearranging a dilute thermal ensemble into a predefined, ordered distribution in a one-dimensional optical lattice. Additionally, I probe two-particle quantum interference effects of two atom trajectories by realizing a microwave Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometer with massive particles, which are cooled into the vibrational ground state.

    The first part of this thesis reports on several new experimental tools and techniques: three-dimensional ground state cooling of single atoms, which are trapped in the combined potential of a polarization-synthesized optical lattice and a blue-detuned hollow dipole potential; A high-NA (0.92) objective lens achieving a diffraction limited resolution of 460 nm; and an improved super-resolution algorithm, which resolves the position of individual atoms in small clusters at high filling factors, even when each lattice site is occupied.

    The next part is devoted to the conceptually new optical-lattice technique that relies on a high-precision, high-bandwidth synthesis of light polarization. Polarization-synthesized optical lattices provide two fully controllable optical lattice potentials, each of them confining only atoms in either one of the two long-lived hyperfine states. By employing one lattice as the storage register and the other one as the shift register, I provide a proof of concept that selected regions of the periodic potential can be filled with one particle per site.

    In the following part I report on a stringent test of the non-classicality of the motion of a massive quantum particle, which propagates on a discrete lattice. Measuring temporal correlations of the position of single atoms performing a quantum walk, we observe a 6 σ (standard deviation) violation of the Leggett-Garg inequality. The experiment is carried out using so-called ideal negative measurements – an essential requisite for any genuine Leggett-Garg test – which acquire information about the atom’s position while avoiding any direct interaction with it. This interaction-free measurement is based on our polarization-synthesized optical lattice, which allows us to directly probe the absence rather than the presence of atoms at a chosen lattice site. Beyond its fundamental aspect, I demonstrate the application of the Leggett-Garg correlation function as a witness of quantum superposition. The witness allows us to discriminate the quantumness of different types of walks spanning from merely classical to quantum dynamics and further to witness the decoherence of a quantum state.

    In the last experimental part I will discuss recent results on collisional losses due to inelastic collisions occurring at high two-atom densities and demonstrate a Hong-Ou-Mandel interference with massive particles. Our precise control over individual indistinguishable particles embodies a direct analogue of the original Hong-Ou-Mandel experiment. By carrying out a Monte Carlo analysis of our experimental data, I demonstrate a signature of the two-particle interference of two-atom trajectories with a statistical significance of 4 σ.

    In the final part I will introduce several new experiments which can be realized with the tools and techniques developed in this thesis, spanning from the detection of topologically protected edge states to the prospect of building a one-million-operation quantum cellular automaton.

  • M. Werninghaus
    Copy of Controlling atom transport in a two-dimensional state-dependent optical lattice, (2017), MasterarbeitBibTeXPDF

    This thesis describes the development of an optical phase lock loop on a digital platform, in order to realize state-dependent transport on a two-dimensional optical lattice. The digital platform consists of a field programmable gate array in combination of a vector generator module, which is used to steer the amplitude and phase of the optical lattice deterministically. The digital system enables the implementation of a feedforward control scheme based on internal model control, which overcomes the bandwidth limitations of feedback systems. The control bandwidth is shown to be increased by more than an order of magnitude, directly improving the number of coherent operations that can be executed with the atoms in the optical lattice. The system is implemented into the optical setup of the experimental apparatus, and the first signatures of state-dependent transport of atoms in the two-dimensional optical lattice is observed and presented.

  • M. Werninghaus
    Controlling atom transport in a two-dimensional state-dependent optical lattice, (2017), MasterarbeitBibTeXPDF

    The content of this thesis is divided into four parts: In chapter one I will describe the experimental techniques and scientific principles used to realize transport in state-dependent optical lattices in two dimensions. The second chapter is dedicated to introducing the digital device platform and a characterization of its basic properties. In the third chapter I will give an overview of control theory with a focus on the fundamentals of feedback control. In addition, I will explain the implementation of the control loops on the digital system in the second part of the chapter. At the end of this chapter, I will present how an internal model control of the lattice can be implemented on the digital platform. The experimental results on state-dependent transport are presented in the last chapter. Furthermore, I will give an outlook of future milestones of the two-dimensional quantum walk experiment.


  • S. Brakhane
    The Quantum Walk Microscope, (2016), DoktorarbeitBibTeXPDF

    In this thesis, I present single-site detection of neutral atoms stored in a three-dimensional optical lattice using a numerical aperture objective lens (NAdesign = 0.92). The combination of high-resolution imaging with state-dependent trapping along two-direction of the lattice opens up the path towards quantum simulations via quantum walks. Suppressing the interactions of a quantum system with the environment is essential for all quantum simulation experiments. It demands a precise control of both the external magnetic (stray) fields and the polarization properties of laser beams inside the vacuum chamber. I designed a metal shielding to reduce magnetic field fluctuations and designed, assembled and characterized a novel ultra-high vacuum glass cell. The glass cell consists of special glass material and exhibits an ultra-low birefringence Δn of a few times 10−8 to highly suppress polarization disturbances originating from stress birefringence in vacuum windows. Furthermore, anti-reflection coatings avoid reflections on all window surfaces. The cell hosts the assembled vacuum-compatible objective, that exhibits a diffraction limited resolution of up to 453 nm and allows to optically resolve the spacing of the optical lattice. Fluorescence images of single trapped atoms are used to characterize the imaging system. The filling, orientation and geometry of the optical lattice is precisely reconstructed using positions of atoms that can be determined from fluorescence images. Furthermore, I present a scheme to realize state-dependent transport and discuss its robustness against experimental imperfections in a technical implementation. This transport scheme enable the realization of discrete-time quantum walks with neutral atoms in two dimensions. These quantum walks pave the way towards the simulation of artificial magnetic fields and topologically protected edge states.


  • T. Groh
    Dekohärenzeffekte in topologischen Phasen von Quantenwalks, (2015), BachelorarbeitBibTeXPDF
    Die Klassifizierung von Quantenwalks über topologische Phasen ermöglicht die Erklärung der Existenz geschützter Zustände an räumlichen Phasengrenzen. In dieser Arbeit wird die Einwirkung von Dekohärenzeffekten auf die Existenz und Form dieser topologisch geschützten Zuständen in Quantenwalks mit diskreter Zeit auf ein- und zweidimensionalen diskreten Gittern simuliert und untersucht. Für die zeitliche Entwicklung topologisch geschützter, lokalisierter Randzustände wird im eindimensionalen System ein einfaches Modell gefunden. Die Grenzen des verwendeten Dekohärenzmodells werden durch die Konstruktion eines dekohärenzfreien Quantenwalk-Protokolls aufgezeigt. Außerdem wer- den die Möglichkeiten und Einschränkungen einer experimentellen Realisierung von topologischen Effekten in Quantenwalks mit neutralen Atomen in optischen Gittern simuliert und analysiert.


  • S. Reichel
    Mikroprozessorgesteuerte Fasereinkopplung, (2014), BachelorarbeitBibTeX


  • J. Huisman
    State-dependent Atom Transport in Polarization Synthesized Optical Lattices: An Estimation of Dephasing Inlfuences, (2013), BachelorarbeitBibTeX


  • A. Hambitzer
    Direct Synthesis of Light Polarization for State-Dependent Transport, (2012), MasterarbeitBibTeXPDF

    This master-thesis investigates a new approach for state-dependent transport of atoms in an optical lattice. It is based on a direct synthesis of light polarization by superimposing two circular polarized beams and employing RF sources integrated with acousto-optic modulators for phase control. An interferometrically stable phase between the two beams is achieved by locking them actively with a heterodyne technique. The influence of polarization crosstalk and erroneous components on the optical lattice and the phase locked loop are investigated and the quality of the phase locked loop is analyzed.

    Compared to conventional methods [25] the direct synthesis method avoids the need of an electro-optic modulator, where rotations on the Poincare sphere are limited by the applicable voltage and restrictions on manufacturing and crystal quality exist. Overcoming these limitations it is expected to reach higher polarization purity and larger shift distances in the new design.

  • D. Kim
    Quantum Register Initialization via Deterministic Atom Sorting in Optical Lattices, (2012), MasterarbeitBibTeXPDF
  • J. Zopes
    Einzelplatz-Detektion im optischen Gitter unterhalb des Beugungslimits, (2012), BachelorarbeitBibTeX
  • S. Arnoldt
    Rotating Quarter-Wave Plate Stokes Polarimeter, (2012), BachelorarbeitBibTeXPDF


  • S. Hild
    Resolved Raman sideband cooling in a doughnut-shaped optical trap, (2011), MasterarbeitBibTeXPDF


  • A. Mawardi
    Generation of a donut beam for a tight radial confinement of atoms in a one-dimensional optical lattice, (2010), MasterarbeitBibTeXPDF
  • M. Karski
    State-selective transport of single neutral atoms, (2010), DoktorarbeitBibTeXPDF
    The present work investigates the state-selective transport of single neutral cesium atoms in a one-dimensional optical lattice. It demonstrates experimental applications of this transport, including a single atom interferometer, a quantum walk and controlled two-atom collisions. The atoms are stored one by one in an optical lattice formed by a standing wave dipole trap. Their positions are determined with sub-micrometer precision, while atom pair separations are reliably inferred down to neighboring lattice sites using real-time numerical processing. Using microwave pulses in the presence of a magnetic field gradient, the internal qubit states, encoded in the hyperfine levels of the atoms, can be separately initialized and manipulated. This allows us to perform arbitrary single-qubit operations and prepare arbitrary patterns of atoms in the lattice with single-site precision. Chapter 1 presents the experimental setup for trapping a small number of cesium atoms in a one-dimensional optical lattice. Chapter 2 is devoted to fluorescence imaging of atoms, discussing the imaging setup, numeric methods and their performance in detail. Chapter 3 focuses on engineering of internal states of trapped atoms in the lattice using optical methods and microwave radiation. It provides a detailed investigation of coherence properties of our experimental system. Finally manipulation of individual atoms with almost single-site resolution and preparation of regular strings of atoms with predefined distances are presented. In Chapter 4, basic concepts, the experimental realization and the performance of the state-selective transport of neutral atoms over several lattice sites are presented and discussed in detail. Coherence properties of this transport are investigated in Chapter 5, using various two-arms single atom interferometer sequences in which atomic matter waves are split, delocalized, merged and recombined on the initial lattice site, while the interference contrast and the accumulated phase difference are measured. By delocalizing a single atom over several lattice sites, possible spatial inhomogeneities of fields along the lattice axis in the trapping region are probed. In Chapter 6, experimental realization of a discrete time quantum walk on a line with single optically trapped atoms is presented as an advanced application of multiple path quantum interference in the context of quantum information processing. Using this simple example of a quantum walk, fundamental properties of and differences between the quantum and classical regimes are investigated and discussed in detail. Finally, by combining preparation of atom strings, position-dependent manipulation of qubit states and state-selective transport, in Chapter 7, two atoms are deterministically brought together into contact, forming a starting point for investigating two-atom interactions on the most fundamental level. Future prospects and suggestions are finally presented in Chapter 8.
  • L. Förster
    Microwave control of atomic motion in a spin dependent optical lattice, (2010), DoktorarbeitBibTeXPDF
    In this thesis I present my results concerning the coherent control of the quantized motional state of trapped neutral Cesium atoms. This is accomplished using microwave radiation in combination with a spin dependent potential con ning the atoms. I present both cooling of atoms close to the motional ground state and the preparation of nonclassical motional states. In total, our apparatus is thus capable to control the spin, the position along the periodic potential and the vibrational state of the atoms. In chapter 1 I give an overview of the experimental apparatus. Our setup is designed to trap and to store on the order of ten atoms in a one dimensional optical lattice. Fluorescence imaging in conjunction with a microscope lens system is used to determine both the number and the position of the atoms. The spin degree of freedom is manipulated using microwave radiation and the trapping potential allows to shift the atoms to the 'left' or to the 'right' along the potential axis, depending on their spin orientation. In chapter 2 I discuss the coupling mechanism between the spin and the motional degree of freedom. A microwave spectrum with a slightly displaced lattice exhibits sideband peaks corresponding to a change of the vibrational quantum number. For the full quantitative understanding I compare the experimental results with a theoretical model, which is also used to quantify possible decoherence mechanisms. Based on this investigations, in chapter 3 I present the results for our ground state cooling scheme, whereby the focuss lies on the peculiarities of our system. A model based on master equations is used to analyze the present cooling limits. In chapter 4, nally, two detection schemes for arbitrary motional states of an atomic ensemble are presented. In particular, they are employed to verify the preparation of nonclassical states.
  • K. Katayama
    Optical Phase Lock Loops and Raman-Cooling, (2010), MasterarbeitBibTeXPDF


  • F. Grenz
    Ein System zur entarteten Raman-Seitenbandkühlung einzelner Cäsium-Atome , (2008), DiplomarbeitBibTeXPDF


  • D. Döring
    Ein Experiment zum zustandsabhängigen Transport einzelner Atome, (2007), DiplomarbeitBibTeXPDF
  • A. Härter
    Ein Aufbau zur kohärenten Manipulation und zum zustandsabhängigen Transport einzelner Atome, (2007), DiplomarbeitBibTeXPDF